Brown fat is a type of fat, found in both children and adults, which can produce heat and regulate the body's metabolism and energy use. White fat is the more common type of fat which is used to store extra calories. Understanding more about differences between brown and white fat may allow us to develop new approaches to improve the body's metabolism.
This research study is evaluating the use of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) as a method of detecting early signs of damage to the heart that can be associated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer.
The SATURN trial aims to determine whether continuation vs. discontinuation of statin drugs after spontaneous lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the best strategy; and whether the decision to continue/discontinue statins should be influenced by an individual's Apolipoprotein-E (APOE) genotype.
An MRI ancillary study (SATURN MRI), in a subset of SATURN participants , will evaluate the effects of continuation vs. discontinuation of statin drugs on hemorrhagic and ischemic MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease, and whether the presence/burden of hemorrhagic markers (i.e. cerebral microbleeds and/or cortical superficial siderosis) on baseline MRI influences the risk of ICH recurrence on/off statin therapy.
The goal of this research study is to determine whether hormonal therapies used early in the course of prostate cancer could increase the amount of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as detected by PET/CT scans for participants with recurrent prostate cancer. This study will measure PSMA levels using standard PET/CT scans and participants will receive standard-of-care androgen receptor antagonist monotherapy.
The names of the treatment interventions involved in this study are:
Androgen receptor antagonist monotherapy.
PSMA PET/CT scan
It is expected that about 15 people will take part in this research study.
Participation in this research study is expected to last about 4 weeks.
This research study is examining whether Neratinib has any activity in participants with prostate cancer that has spread and is no longer responding to hormonal treatment.
- The names of the study drug involved in this study is neratinib.
This research study is studying an immune-based cancer drug as a possible treatment for prostate cancer.
The drug involved in this study is:
The goal of this fully-remote randomized controlled trial is to test the efficacy of Mindful Steps in facilitating physical activity compared to usual standard of care among 136 patients with COPD and/or HF. The main question it aims to answer is can this intervention promote physical activity as measured by daily step counts in sedentary patients with COPD and/or HF. Participants will be randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive either the Mindful Steps intervention or usual care for 12 months, with both arms receiving a Walking for Health education booklet.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted educational approach designed to increase knowledge about the risks and benefits of living donation generally and KPD (Kidney Paired Donation) specifically, enhance KPD self-efficacy, reduce KPD concerns, and facilitate informed decision-making about KPD among potential live kidney donor and kidney transplant patients.
A multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, Phase 1/2a clinical study to investigate the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and exploratory efficacy of a vaccine regimen consisting of an Ad26.Mos4.HIV prime and a boost with Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-BN-HIV in combination with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb) PGT121, PGDM1400, and VRC07-523LS in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected study participants on suppressive anti-retroviral therapy (ART).
This protocol will utilize the lymphedema indentometer, or durometer (a novel, noninvasive piece of equipment that measures skin elasticity), to better characterize disease progression in patients with lymphedema. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center patients who undergo treatment of lymphedema will be candidates for this noninvasive test. This device and the data it generates will help understand the incidence of lymphedema at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center compared to national data and the outcomes of surgical treatment of lymphedema.
The purpose of this study is to test a double screening strategy for pancreatic cancer, based on a model developed using patient medical records. Investigators would also like to test whether adding specific blood tests, can further help identify people who have a higher risk of pancreatic cancer than the general population, and would benefit from imaging in order to detect cancer early.
This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study to investigate the effect of intravenous thiamine (vitamin B1) on renal function in septic shock.
The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of InVEST (Individualized Vocational and Educational Support and Training) for CHR-P (clinical high risk for psychosis) to address specific role functioning difficulties associated with the CHR-P phase. Our specific goals are:
Part 1: Preliminary open trial of InVEST (n = 8) to collect preliminary feasibility and acceptability data by providing the intervention, administering assessments, and collecting focus group and self-report feedback from open trial participants. The open trial phase will help to refine recruitment approaches and to modify the treatment manual as needed.
Part 2: Preliminary randomized controlled trial of InVEST vs. Delayed InVEST (DI) to explore preliminary evidence of efficacy of InVEST vs. DI (n = 30). The investigators hope to gain understanding of the feasibility of InVEST and the study's assessment procedures, and to gain a preliminary understanding of the intervention's efficacy for functioning difficulties experienced by young people at CHR-P.
This study will examine the safety of clofarabine, TLI and ATG as a reduced conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic transplantation. The impact of the conditioning regimen on the presence of the circulating regulatory as compared to activated T cell populations will be assessed.The recovery of DC populations post-transplant will be examined, along with the effect of the regimen on disease free and overall survival.
The main purpose of this study is to test the safety of the dendritic cell/tumor fusion study vaccine in combination with a laboratory-made agent called Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). Another purpose is to determine the type and severity of any side effects associated with this study vaccine. GM-CSF is similar to a substance in the body that stimulates the production of white blood cells. To create the study vaccine, cells will be removed from the participants tumor and fused with dendritic cells which are obtained from the participants blood. Dendritic cells are responsible for immune responses to "foreign" substances that enter the body. Animal studies have shown that these fused cells can stimulate powerful anti-tumor responses.
This research study is studying a targeted therapy known as GO-203-2C as a possible treatment for with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) both alone and in combination with decitabine. GO-203-2c targets cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unaffected.This is a Phase I/II clinical trial. A Phase I clinical trial tests the safety of an investigational intervention and also tries to define the appropriate dose of the investigational intervention to use for further studies.
The main purpose of this study is to test the safety and determine the type and severity of any side effects of the Dendritic Cell Fusion Vaccine given in combination with an autologous transplant for patients with multiple myeloma. Autologous stem cell transplantation is a standard therapy for multiple myeloma that is often successful in significantly decreasing the amount of cancer. However, it is not a cure because at some point the multiple myeloma generally begins to grow again. Cancer vaccines are investigational agents that try to stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight against cancer cells. One type of cancer vaccine uses an immune stimulating cell of the body known as a dendritic cell. Research has shown that these dendritic cells can stimulate an immune response against the tumor.
The purpose of this research study is to determine the safety of CT-011 alone, as well as the combination of the Dendritic cell fusion vaccine and CT-011, after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We are also trying to find out what effect the combination has on the disease, including if it is more successful in preventing or delaying the disease from coming back, compared to treatment with autologous transplantation alone. ASCT is a standard therapy for multiple myeloma that is often successful in significantly decreasing the amount of cancer in the body. CT-011 is an investigational monoclonal antibody. Monoclonal antibodies are a type of drug given by infusion into a vein and are known to target specific cells (in this case, cells in the immune system). The dendritic cell fusion vaccine is an investigational agent that tries to help the immune system to recognize and fight against cancer cells. Unlike a standard vaccine that is used to prevent infections, cancer vaccines are being studied to see if they can fight cancers that are already in the body.
This research study is evaluating the effect (good and bad) of a dendritic cell/tumor fusion vaccine in combination with the laboratory made agents GM-CSF and imiquimod on the participants immune system. Another purpose of this study is to determine the type and severity of any side effects associated with this new study vaccine. We will also be evaluating what effect the vaccine has on the participants cancer. Dendritic cell vaccines have already been tested in clinical trials involving participants with many different types of cancer. Dendritic cells are powerful immune-stimulating cells that are normally found in small amounts in the body and are responsible for immune responses against "foreign" substances that enter the body.
This research study is studying a cancer vaccine called Dendritic Cell/MM Fusion vaccine (DC/MM vaccine) in combination with nivolumab, as a possible treatment for multiple myeloma (MM).
The drugs involved in this study are:
Dendritic Cell/MM Fusion vaccine (DC/MM vaccine)
Nivolumab, an immunotherapy drug
This research study is for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Metastatic means that the cancer has spread beyond the breast. In addition, through genetic testing of the blood or tumor, an altered gene has been found that suggests the tumor may not be able to repair its genetic material (DNA) when it becomes damaged.
This aspect of the cancer may cause it to be more sensitive - that is, more effectively killed by certain types of drugs such as the study agent being evaluated in this trial, Olaparib.
Olaparib is a type of drug known as a PARP inhibitor. Some types of breast cancer and ovarian cancer share some basic features that make them sensitive to similar treatments. Information from those other research studies suggests that this drug may help to treat metastatic breast cancer.
This study will evaluate whether olaparib is effective in breast cancer patients whose tumor has a mutation in one of the other genes that function with BRCA1 and BRCA2 to repair damaged DNA .This mutation may have been inherited from a parent, or may have developed only in the tumor.
This study will also evaluate whether olaparib is effective in breast cancer patients whose tumor has a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 that was acquired by the tumor, but not inherited.
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) arises from leukemia stem cells that are difficult to eradicate and serve as a reservoir for disease relapse following chemotherapy. A promising area of investigation is the development of immunotherapeutic approaches that stimulate the immune system to recognize leukemia stem cells as foreign and eliminate them. The purpose of this research study is to determine the safety of the Dendritic Cell AML Fusion Vaccine (DC AML vaccine) after participants have achieved a remission with chemotherapy. In this clinical trial, patients are treated with a tumor vaccine alone following standard of care chemotherapy. The DC AML vaccine is an investigational agent that tries to help the immune system to recognize and fight against cancer cells. It is hoped that DC AML vaccine will prevent or delay the disease from coming back.
This research study is studying a cancer vaccine called Dendritic Cell/AML Fusion vaccine (DC/AML vaccine) as a possible treatment for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML).
The interventions involved in this study are:
-Dendritic Cell/AML Fusion vaccine (DC/AML vaccine)
This research study is studying a cancer vaccine called Dendritic Cell/AML Fusion vaccine (DC/AML vaccine) as a possible treatment for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML).
The interventions involved in this study are:
Dendritic Cell/AML Fusion vaccine (DC/AML vaccine)
Decitabine, a chemotherapy drug
The purpose of this study is to determine which participants with melanoma have a better response to IL-2 and to identify markers that may predict response to IL-2 by collecting participant information (for example; cancer diagnosis and history, prior treatments for cancer, etc.) blood and tumor samples prior to treatment and tumor measurements after treatment.
This research study is studying a combination of two drug interventions called rosuvastatin and enoxaparin as a possible preventative measure against developing venous blood clots (such deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism). .
The drugs involved in this study are:
Rosuvastatin, also known as Crestor
This study is being done to see if nitrous oxide during vasectomy decreases pain and anxiety, and also assess whether patients have better satisfaction when they control their own level of nitrous oxide during the procedure. If we find that patients experience less pain or anxiety with nitrous oxide, it could be suggested that self-adjusted nitrous oxide (SANO) may be a useful tool for improving experience of care during vasectomy.
This research study is evaluating the effectiveness of Zafirlukast to prevent tumor activity in participants with tumor marker-only relapsed ovarian cancer.
The name of the study drug involved in this study is:
High-dose interleukin 2 (Proleukin, Novartis) (IL-2) is approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic kidney cancer and is a standard treatment of this disease. At the present time, IL-2 is the only therapy for kidney cancer that can produce a remission of disease that lasts after treatment is completed. However, most patients who receive IL-2 do not benefit and all patients experience potentially dangerous side effects.
Recent research has suggested that certain patients may respond better to IL-2 than others. The Cytokine Working Group is currently conducting a clinical trial that aims to identify and confirm this research and narrow the application of IL-2 to those patients most likely to benefit.
The purpose of this research study is to determine if sorafenib improves the effectiveness of a procedure called radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Radiofrequency ablation has been used to treat many types of tumors, including hepatocellular cancers. During RFA a needle is inserted into the tumor tissue and heat is used to kill the tumor cells. Sorafenib has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer that cannot be treated with surgery. Pre-clinical data suggests that sorafenib may improve the efficacy of RFA.
This study is looking at a breast cancer screening technique, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), as a possible alternative to the breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) used by most healthcare professionals.
The technique involved in this study is:
-Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI)
The objective of this study is to investigate whether the addition of immersive virtual reality (VR) in the immediate postoperative period to an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol could improve postoperative recovery from bariatric surgery.
This research study is evaluating whether contrast enhanced mammography can be used as an alternative to breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for cancer screening
The objective of this study is to investigate whether the use of virtual reality (VR) during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can facilitate reductions in intraoperative sedative requirements while maintaining high levels of patient satisfaction as compared to both a music and sham VR + usual care control.
The purpose of this research study is to evaluate a decision aid to help women aged 70 and older decide on treatment for their breast cancer.
Traditionally, the severity of a blockage (stenosis) in a coronary artery has been determined by visual angiographic assessment of the diameter of the artery at the level of a blockage compared to a normal healthy area of the same artery. With the advent of invasive physiological testing to assess coronary blood flow, multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a clinical benefit to a physiology-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) approach. However, despite this and the potential for significant variation in the interpretation of coronary artery stenosis severity by visual angiography alone to guide PCI, invasive physiologic indices remain significantly under-utilized.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the physiologic significance of coronary lesions deemed angiographically severe by visual estimation that are planned for PCI. The investigators plan to perform blinded physiologic assessment pre and post PCI. The primary aim of the study is to determine whether a subset of lesions visually estimated as severe by angiography treated with stent placement/PCI may in fact not be physiologically significant when assessed invasively, and thus PCI could safely be deferred in these patients. A secondary aim is to evaluate physiologic assessment post PCI to detect residual ischemia that could be utilized to optimize stent placement.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether treatment with tiagabine (Gabitril) during the early course of schizophrenia can fundamentally correct the brain deficits associated with the disease.
This study is funded by the National Institutes of Health.
A urodynamic study (UDS) is a common procedure done to learn more about the cause of urinary symptoms. For some patients, UDS can be associated with anxiety or discomfort. Nitrous oxide (or laughing-gas) is a well-known sedative which is frequently used in dental offices and for pediatric procedures to reduce anxiety and pain. This study is being done to see if giving low-dose (25-50%) nitrous oxide at the time of UDS affects the measurements taken during the procedure, such as how much volume your bladder can hold, and pressures during urination. If the measurements are the same with and without self-administered nitrous oxide (SANO), it could be suggested that nitrous oxide may be a useful way of reducing patient anxiety and pain during UDS.
Nearly 25% of Americans die in intensive care units (ICUs). Most deaths in ICUs are expected and involve the removal of ventilator support, or palliative withdrawal of mechanical ventilation (WMV). Prior work by the Principal Investigator (PI) found that patient suffering can be common; with 30-59% of patients going through this process experiencing distress. Thus, experts and national organizations have called for evidence to inform guidelines for WMV. This research study will 1) develop and refine a Comfort Measures Only Time out (CMOT) intervention consisting of a structured time out with check-list protocol for the ICU team (nurse, physician, respiratory therapist) to improve the process of WMV. and 2) Pilot test the CMOT intervention in 4 ICUs (2 medical/2 surgical) among 40 WMV patients.
Peripheral inflammation and microvascular dysfunction are central to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Retinal imaging allows for the accurate quantitative assessment of the condition of retinal microvessels, and early studies implicate microvascular dysfunction in SZ, but the specific pathophysiological mechanisms underlying greater length, density, capillary network and diameter are not yet entirely understood. Anti-inflammatory drug trials in SZ suggest that Early Course Schizophrenia (ECS) individuals with elevated peripheral inflammation show the greatest benefit to adjunctive anti inflammatory treatments. Also, there is a growing interest in the use of Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) in SZ but further studies are needed as results are inconsistent. This study will determine the effectiveness of SNP on psychosis symptoms, cognition, and retinal measures in symptomatic ECS.
This study is a pilot clinical trial to assess the feasibility of implementing a group-psychotherapy intervention to modify emotional stress (e.g., anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress) following ICU hospitalization
The purpose of this study is to understand better the mechanisms of action of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) targeted monoclonal antibodies in migraine prevention. Specifically, the protocol will allow the investigators to determine whether the main site of action of this novel and recently-approved class of migraine prophylactic drugs act inside or outside the brain and if so, where.
Goal of this project is to investigate whether increases in inflammation that result from common patterns of restricting sleep on week nights and catching up on sleep over the weekend are caused by disruption in the newly discovered inflammatory resolution pathways. These pathways are crucial in the active termination of the inflammatory response, and their disruption may contribute to ongoing unresolved inflammation, which has been observed not only during periods of sleep restriction, but also after recovery sleep has been obtained. If the hypothesis is true, it is possible that increasing the body's natural production of endogenous, inflammatory resolution mediators may provide a non-behavioral strategy to limit the inflammatory consequences in those undergoing periods of sleep restriction with intermittent recovery sleep.
The SAFE-PAD Study aims to evaluate the long-term safety of paclitaxel-coated devices compared with non-paclitaxel-coated devices for femoropopliteal artery revascularization among a broad, real-world population of patients with peripheral artery disease. This multi-year analysis aims to create an ongoing mechanism to evaluate the safety of paclitaxel-coated devices in real world practice. The null hypothesis is that the paclitaxel-coated devices are associated with an increase in mortality relative to the non-drug-coated devices beyond an acceptable magnitude (i.e. the non-inferiority margin), and the alternative hypothesis is that paclitaxel-coated devices are not associated with an increase in mortality relative to the non-drug-coated devices beyond the non-inferiority margin.
Diet and lifestyle changes are the recommended first line treatments for symptom relief in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently the only diet that is widely recommended and for which there is good evidence of efficacy in IBS is one low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (low-FODMAP). While effective, the Low-FODMAP diet is burdensome and costly to patients and in clinical practice adherence to FODMAP restriction is less than optimal. Further, patients who respond to a FODMAP restriction often are reluctant to reintroduce more FODMAPs into their diet, which may deprive them of foods, particularly fruits and vegetables with important health benefits. Therefore, there is a need for other dietary interventions for IBS that are less burdensome to patients. This clinical trial assesses the efficacy of two dietary interventions.
Primary high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become first line screening for cervical cancer in high-income countries. The feasibility of this approach in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is less clear, as is the role of HPV testing among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The proposed study seeks to evaluate the accuracy of cervical cancer screening algorithms using primary HPV testing followed by various forms of visual evaluation, including visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), colposcopy and automated visual evaluation (AVE) for the detection of high-grade cervical dysplasia, using histology as the gold standard. We will validate the AmpFire Assay for HPV self-sampling in our setting. We will determine safe screening intervals in women living with HIV (WLHIV) in an HPV-based cervical cancer screening program and compare triage strategies for positive HPV results at WHO recommended screening intervals for WLHIV. We also seek to understand in-depth the attitudes, acceptability and preferences regarding cervical cancer screening, HPV testing, and self-sampling, for women in Botswana through interviews of a sub-set of women recruited for the cervical cancer screening study. Finally, we will analyze the cost of two-stage cervical cancer screening algorithms using high-risk HPV testing in Botswana.
Hemispatial neglect is a disorder where the patient has difficulty attending to objects and information in the left side of space, which occurs following strokes to the right side of the brain. This project is designed to help us understand how optokinetic stimulation treats the symptoms of hemispatial neglect.
The visual system has increasingly been recognized as an important site of injury in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses. Visual system alterations manifest as visual perceptual aberrations, deficits in visual processing, and visual hallucinations. These visual symptoms are associated with worse symptoms, poorer outcome and resistance to treatment. A recent study using brain lesion mapping of visual hallucinations and identified a causal location in the part of the brain that processes visual information (visual cortex). The association between visual cortex activation and visual hallucinations suggests that this region could be targeted using noninvasive brain stimulation. Two case studies have found that brain stimulation to the visual cortex improved visual hallucinations in treatment resistant patients with psychosis. While promising it is unclear whether these symptom reductions resulted from activity changes in the visual cortex or not. Here we aim to answer the question whether noninvasive brain stimulation when optimally targeted to the visual cortex can improve brain activity, visual processing and visual hallucinations. The knowledge gained from this study will contribute to the field of vision by providing a marker for clinical response and by personalizing treatment for patients with psychosis suffering from visual symptoms. This grant will allow us to set the foundation for a larger more targeted study utilizing noninvasive brain stimulation to improve visual symptoms in patients with psychosis.
Airway stents are used as standard of care to identify which patients with excessive dynamic airway collapse will benefit from a definitive surgical treatment. However, the specific way in which these stents are effective has not been tested. The purpose of this research study is to determine the effectiveness of airway stents when used in the airways of patients with severe symptomatic excessive dynamic airway collapse compared to patients with severe symptomatic excessive dynamic airway collapse that do not receive airway stent.