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Real-World Safety Analysis of Paclitaxel Devices Used for the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease

Treatment with paclitaxel-based endovascular devices (PED) has become a common treatment option for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) involving the femoral-popliteal artery. However, an aggregate level meta-analysis identified an association between the use of PED and increased all-cause mortality at both two and five-year follow-up intervals, though there are significant limitations of these analyses. Exploration of real-world data has been suggested as a means to further investigate the safety of PED. The current study explores the association of PED and mortality in real-world data using U.S. commercial claims from the FAIR Health data warehouse. This study aims to evaluate the relative safety of paclitaxel used as an antiproliferative agent in the treatment of symptomatic PAD in a real-world scenario. We will analyze Paclitaxel Drug-Coated Balloons (DCB) and Paclitaxel Drug-Eluting Stents (DES), in aggregate and as unique exposures using propensity score-matched survival analysis. (Inverse probability of Treatment Weighting). Commercial claims of patients who underwent endovascular interventional treatment of the femoral or popliteal arteries for symptomatic PAD between 1/1/15 and 12/31/2019 will form the study population. Three separate safety analyses will be performed. 1. Paclitaxel Drug coated balloons (DCB) as compared with propensity-matched patients treated with plain transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA). 2. Paclitaxel delivering Drug-Eluting Stents (DES) as compared with propensity-matched cases using bare-metal stents (BMS). 3. Patients treated with either paclitaxel DCB or paclitaxel DES (any PTX) compared with propensity-matched controls (non-PTX,with DCB patients, matched to patients treated with PTA, and DES patients matched to patients treated with BMS). All proposed analyses will be performed using R 4.01 implemented within the DELTA analytic engine. DELTA is an active surveillance safety system that can monitor clinical data repositories for safety signals and has been validated to support risk-adjusted prospective safety surveillance analyses of complex clinical datasets.