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Physiological Assessment of Severe Coronary Stenosis for Informing Planned PCI

Invasive physiological assessment via both resting and hyperemic indices has been shown to correlate with clinical outcomes in multiple controlled clinical trials. The traditional approach for the use of physiologic assessment has been in the context of angiographic intermediate lesions, defined as a stenosis between 40-70% stenosis by visual assessment, however it is plausible it could also be used in the context of coronary artery stenosis deemed severe (>70%) by visual assessment given the clear limitations to an angiography approach alone. A subgroup analysis of the Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography in Multivessel Evaluation (FAME trial) suggested that only 80% of the lesions deemed significant (70-90% diameter stenosis) by angiography were also flow limiting by invasive physiology. Recent studies have further revealed that the role of physiologic assessments can be expanded to optimize the results after PCI by detecting residual ischemia both in the form of diffuse and focal lesions.

With advances in technology in recent years, the current generation of coronary pressure-sensing wires now exhibit performances similar to that of traditional work-horse wires. This, coupled with the advent of non-hyperemic pressure ratio (NHPR) metrics which allow rapid invasive coronary physiology measurements within seconds without the cost and potential side effects of adenosine administration associated with traditional hyperemic physiology measures, now offers the capability to routinely perform physiology guided PCI approach for visually severe lesions.

REFINE-PCI is a prospective, single-center study in which participants with coronary artery stenosis deemed severe by visual angiography and planned for PCI without physiology assessment will undergo blinded invasive physiologic measurements using a coronary-pressure sensing wire pre and post PCI (OpSens OptoWire III) to assess the physiologic significance of the stenosis. Participants will also complete a health-related quality of life survey pre and 30 days post stent placement to assess for clinical change following PCI.