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Effects of Mobility Dose on Discharge Disposition in Critically Ill Stroke Patients

The investigators have previously developed and validated the Surgical Intensive Care Unit Optimal Mobilization Score (SOMS), an algorithm to guide and facilitate early mobilization to advance mobility of surgical intensive care unit patients (NCT01363102). In addition, the investigators have established the use of bedside ultrasound technology to quantify cross sectional area of the rectus femoris muscle, which allows an objective, user-independent quantification of muscle wasting (NCT02270502).

This is a prospective, observational study to observe the relation between mobility dose, muscle wasting and patient outcomes in critically ill stroke patients.

Patients will be enrolled within 48 hours of ICU admission. The investigators will measure the dose of activity, that is duration and intensity of mobilization in critically ill patients with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. By mobility "dose" the investigators are referring to all provider-directed activities (by nursing, and physical therapists) meant to enhance the patient's mobility level. The investigators take into account mobility "dose", defined as a function of both the mobility level (e.g., sitting at the edge of the bed, ambulating) as well as its duration. Of note, there is so far no published data available that describes patients' mobility "dose" in such an integrative, semi-quantitative fashion.

The investigators use the existing mobility intensity quantification tool (MQS) (NCT03196960) and test the hypotheses that mobilization dose predicts muscle wasting in critically ill stroke patients, adverse hospital discharge disposition as well as 90 day Barthel Index. The investigators will apply hierarchical testing to evaluate the association between mobilization dose and discharge disposition as well as 90-day Barthel Index.

The Mobilization Quantification Score (MQS) is a composition of the validated ICU mobility score (SOMS), a 0 to 10 value scale that measures the mobility milestones in critically ill patients, multiplied by a for each level previously defined time unit (5 or 30 minutes correspond to one unit depending on mobilization level).

In order to capture the muscle status at ICU admission, determined by the first bedside ultrasound of the rectus femoris muscle after enrollment, and the change in rectus femoris muscle diameter throughout stay, the investigators will conduct repetitive measurements of the cross sectional area of the rectus femoris muscles (RF-CSA) of both legs. This longitudinal setting will allow to investigate muscle wasting due to immobilization and other severe illness related factors in the paretic and non-paretic limb.

The investigators will conduct a scheduled phone call 30 days and 90 days after hospital discharge by getting in contact with either the patient or a family member to obtain follow-up data. This conversation will include questions that allow to identify the Barthel Index at 30 days, the Barthel Index and GOS-E score at 90 days, and if the patient has been readmitted to a hospital within 30 days of hospital discharge and mortality.

Discharge disposition is defined as discharge to facilities providing long-term care assistance for daily activities, including nursing homes and skilled nursing facilities, hospice at the patient's home, hospice in a health care facility; or in-hospital mortality. The Barthel Index is a measure of functional disability originally designed to evaluate progress of rehabilitation in patients with stroke and neuromuscular disease. The GOS-E (Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale) is a global scale for functional outcome that rates patient status into eight categories: Dead Vegetative State, Upper and Lower Severe Disability, Upper and Lower Moderate Disability, Upper and Lower Good Recovery.